1. Detection of bisphenol A in thermal paper receipts and assessment of human exposure: A case study from Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
Semerjian L, Alawadhi N, and Nazer K
- Humans, United Arab Emirates, Benzhydryl Compounds analysis, Paper, Occupational Exposure analysis
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical that is widely used in various industrial applications. It has concerns in its use as a color developer in thermal paper receipts since it is identified as an endocrine disruptor and causes hormonal disturbances. In this study, thirty thermal paper receipt samples were randomly collected from various locations in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sixty percent (60%) of receipt samples showed BPA levels above the acceptable limit (200 ng/mg) set by the European Union (EU) for thermal papers. On the other hand, 40% of the samples reported very low BPA levels (< 0.02 ng/mg). However, estimated weight adjusted daily intakes (EDI) ranged between 8.22 ×10-11 and 0.000812 μg/kg bw/day for the general population, and between 7.89×10-9 and 0.0681 μg/kg bw/day for the occupationally exposed cashiers. Thus, all calculated EDIs were below the European Food Safety Authority Tolerable Daily Intake (4 μg/kg·bw/day) and the provisional Health Canada Tolerable Daily Intake (25 ug/kg bw/day) under varying paper-to-skin transfer coefficients and absorption fractions. Nevertheless, due to its health effects and recent legal restrictions by EU, the occurrence of co-exposure to dietary and non-dietary sources should be considered in the health risk assessment of Bisphenol A, mainly for people with frequent occupational exposure to thermal paper, and especially with the increased use of sanitizers. The current study is a first within the UAE context in relation to BPA in thermal paper receipts, thus its significance especially with the recent EU enforcement of BPA limits in paper receipts. The study highlights that proper policies as well as education and awareness may assist in limiting transdermal BPA exposure for the general and occupationally exposed populations., Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist., (Copyright: © 2023 Semerjian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.)
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