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Socioeconomic Inequalities in SARS-CoV-2 Infection and COVID-19 Health Outcomes in Urban Italy During the COVID-19 Vaccine Rollout, January–November 2021.

Authors :
Fotakis, Emmanouil Alexandros
Mateo-Urdiales, Alberto
Fabiani, Massimo
Sacco, Chiara
Petrone, Daniele
Riccardo, Flavia
Bella, Antonino
Pezzotti, Patrizio
Source :
Journal of Urban Health. Apr2024, Vol. 101 Issue 2, p289-299. 11p.
Publication Year :


This study analysed the evolution of the association of socioeconomic deprivation (SED) with SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 outcomes in urban Italy during the vaccine rollout in 2021. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis between January and November 2021, comprising of 16,044,530 individuals aged ≥ 20 years, by linking national COVID-19 surveillance system data to the Italian SED index calculated at census block level. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of infection and severe COVID-19 outcomes by SED tercile relative to the least deprived tercile, over three periods defined as low (0–10%); intermediate (> 10–60%) and high (> 60–74%) vaccination coverage. We found patterns of increasing relative socioeconomic inequalities in infection, hospitalisation and death as COVID-19 vaccination coverage increased. Between the low and high coverage periods, IRRs for the most deprived areas increased from 1.09 (95%CI 1.03–1.15) to 1.28 (95%CI 1.21–1.37) for infection; 1.48 (95%CI 1.36–1.61) to 2.02 (95%CI 1.82–2.25) for hospitalisation and 1.57 (95%CI 1.36–1.80) to 1.89 (95%CI 1.53–2.34) for death. Deprived populations in urban Italy should be considered as vulnerable groups in future pandemic preparedness plans to respond to COVID-19 in particular during mass vaccination roll out phases with gradual lifting of social distancing measures. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


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Academic Search Index
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Journal of Urban Health
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Academic Journal
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